All posts by philipjboxer

The Flow of Choice

Title: The Flow of Choice
Author: Philip Boxer
Category: Published
Publication Year: 1983
Where Published: In Mancuso J.C. & Adams-Webber J.R. (eds) ‘The Construing Person’, Praeger.

The Choice Corollary: A person chooses for himself that alternative in a dichotomised construct through which he anticipates the greater possibility for extension and definition of his system.
The Fundamental Postulate is a construction of the individual as a “process in being”. Like a flowing stream, the individual’s behaviour is construed as the dynamic choices implicit in his onward flow across the epigenetic landscape of his construing. The process of choice lies at the centre of the development of the individual’s construction system, and it is this system that forms the landscape that channelises the onward flow of the individual’s processes. Not only does the construction system construe its own extension and definition, thus setting itself apart as a self referential system, but also the construction system produces alternatives, the experience of which varies the construction system itself: the construction system has the capability of being self modifying. These two properties of the construction system have enormous implications for the autonomy of the individual in relation to others that can only be touched on in this chapter. The individual also experiences himself as self aware and conscious of the choices open to him within the context of that self awareness. There is a duality in this consciousness in that the individual can both think about himself the stream as seen from the point of view of the surrounding landscape and he can also think as himself the stream in being seen from the point of view of being the stream itself. This duality manifests itself to him on the one hand as a consciousness of choice and on the other hand as an awareness of choosing.
It is my intention to explore the Choice Corollary in this chapter from the point of view of choosing. The objective underlying this is to arrive at an understanding of what can go ‘wrong’ with this process as construed by the individual choosing.

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Niches and Competition: The Ecology of Market Organisation

Title: Niches and Competition: The Ecology of Market Organisation
Author: Boxer, P.J. & Wensley, J.R.C.
Category: Working
Publication Year: 1982

In this paper, we link together some of the analytical approaches adopted by ecological forms of discourse with current evidence and experience in consumer and market segmentation studies. The primary consequence of this work is to refocus our attention away from the concept of the product market, a single or multiple resource to be exploited by producers, towards the concept of the active consumer: the customer who uses the various producer offerings by configuring them in such a way as to support his or her needs as best as s/he is able. Such a refocussing suggests a new view of market organisation in support of such active consumers. In this respect, we echo much of Wroe Alderson’s writing, and are able develop his ideas by looking more closely at the ways in which the organisation and structure of channels of distribution are able to balance with the interests of the other two behaviour systems: those of active consumers, and those which fund channel organisation and structure. Our conclusion is that the word ‘niche’ has been used to support a view of market organisation which has done precisely that which the ecologists would wish us not to do: to encourage a relationship to our environment which does not consider the effect it has on that environment.

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Supporting Reflective Learning

Title: Supporting Reflective Learning
Author: Philip Boxer
Category: Published
Publication Year: 1980
Where Published: Human Relations 33(1)

The paper develops a framework which extends Kelly’s theory of personal constructs so that it can incorporate concepts of consciousness and of structure. It shows both how this extension makes it possible to explore the dynamics of structures as they are apparent in managers’ use of language, and how the extension can be operationalized so that a manager can not only think about the theory, but also think through it. It concludes that this operational form of the theory enables the manager to have a new kind of learning experience: reflective learning.

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Learning as a Subversive Activity

Title: Learning as a Subversive Activity
Author: Philip Boxer
Category: Published
Publication Year: 1981
Where Published: In Boydell T. & Pedler M. (eds) ‘Management Self-Development: concepts and practices’, Gower.

What is meant by ‘subversive’? Is it the challenging of established forms of knowledge, or does it imply the undermining of the establishment values around the authority-figure teacher/learner relationship? In either case it can clearly be seen as a movement towards the integration of knower and known, of learner and learned. This chapter describes one approach to this movement, which is also a very clear example of the use of social processes to aid individual development, through co-counseling. It is all the more intriguing in that these personal and social processes are assisted by modern technology, by computer-assisted reflective learning.

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Reflective Analysis

Title: Reflective Analysis
Author: Philip Boxer
Category: Published
Publication Year: 1981
Where Published: In Shaw M.L.G. (ed) ‘Recent Advances in Personal Construct Technology’, Academic Press.

The paper describes a method of computer assisted reflective learning capable of being used by managers. The method enables managers to explore the value of their past experience in relation to a particular problem context; to consider how their own experience relates to that of other managers; and finally to create design criteria for strategic options within a problem context capable of commanding a consensus between the managers. The paper concludes that the method represents a new departure in the use of computers for supporting strategic management.

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Supporting reflective learning: towards a reflexive theory of form

Title: Supporting reflective learning: towards a reflexive theory of form
Author: Philip Boxer
Category: Published
Publication Year: 1981
Where Published: In Bonarius H., Holland R. & Rosenberg S. (eds) ‘Personal Construct Psychology: Recent Advances in Theory and Practice’, Macmillan.

The paper develops a framework which extends Kelly’s theory of personal constructs so that it can incorporate concepts of consciousness and of structure. It shows both how this extension makes it possible to explore the dynamics of structures as they are apparent in managers’ use of language, and how the extension can be operationalized so that a manager can not only think about the theory, but also think through it. It concludes that this operational form of the theory enables the manager to have a new kind of learning experience: reflective learning.

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Reflective Learning

Title: Reflective Learning
Author: Philip Boxer & Richard Boot
Category: Published
Publication Year: 1980
Where Published: Beck J. & Cox C. (eds) “Advances in Management Education”, Wiley.

Reflective Learning is a method of facilitating learning from experience. So why not stick to the more commonly used term ‘experiential learning’? There are a number of reasons for this and in this paper we hope that by describing what we mean by reflective learning those reasons will become clearer. A useful starting point might be to state one of our basic assumptions, which is that experience alone is not learning and does not guarantee that learning will take place. It is no use providing people with ‘experiences’ either in the classroom or in the workplace in the hope that they will learn. Whether or not they learn will depend on what they ‘do’ with that experience. This fact is recognised in the old cliché that there is a difference between the man who has lived one year thirty times and the man who has lived thirty years once.
For us the major aspect of learning is not change in overt behaviour as a result of experience, but the process of discovering new, personal meanings in that experience. Those meanings may lead to new forms of personal action and so be observable in terms of changed behaviour, but equally they may not. The stage in the cycle that influences the quality of learning from experience (i.e. the extent to which it leads to new meaning) is reflection the process of thinking back on, reworking, or searching for meanings in experience.

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Developing the Quality of Judgement

Title: Developing the Quality of Judgement.
Author: Philip Boxer
Category: Published
Publication Year: 1978
Where Published: Personnel Review, Vol 7 No 2 36-39.
Abstract:

This paper considers how the gap between ‘academic’ knowledge and ‘practical’ experience can be bridged in the context of a manager’s exercise of judgement. It examines the role of the manager from three different perspectives, in order to explain why the gap has a tendency to appear; and it then suggests the concept of a decisionmaking framework as a model of the means by which a manager exercises judgement. After describing the nature of this framework and its constituent elements, the paper considers the effects of different developmental methods on the framework, and therefore on the quality of judgement. The paper concludes that support must be given to a new institution-based educational perspective, if the aim of developing the quality of judgement is to be achieved, and thereby the gap bridged.

 

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Designing Simulators for Strategic Managers

Sunday, 02 December 1979 14:36
Title: Designing Simulators for Strategic Managers.
Author: Philip Boxer
Category: Published
Publication Year: 1979
Where Published: Journal of Management Studies, 16(1) 30-44.
Abstract:

The activity of strategic management is important because it is the activity through which the structure of an organisation is developed and adapted in relation to its environment. The activities within an organisation are systematised within structures because they enable the organisation to ensure the effectiveness of those activities, and there already exist teaching methods appropriate for training managers in the operation of such structures. Few teaching methods exist however for teaching managers about structure itself. This paper initially discusses what structure is, and then goes on to describe an approach to the support of managers learning about structure: how structure can be related to the activities of managers, and how managers can explore the implications of adopting alternative structures within their organisation. The paper puts forward symbols for describing structure. It is then shown how the symbols can be combined by a manager to describe a particular organisational context in the form of a simulator, and how the resulting design can be transformed into the form of a computer program. This enables the resulting simulator to be used by the manager to explore the implications of adopting particular structural choices as he has defined them within the organisation. Finally, the nature of the teacher’s role is considered when supporting the learning of managers using this approach.

 

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